During a normal pregnancy, weight gain is average of 9 to 12 kgs for a newborn from March to April kgs. The rest is divided between the placenta and other appendices, plus the creation of a reserve of fat that will be used during breastfeeding.
Weight gain is not regular during pregnancy. Very low in the first quarter, it must be an average of 1.5 kg per month from the fourth month
Monitoring weight gain during pregnancy is essential. Through the measurement of weight, it helps to maintain a balance with a diet tailored to the needs of pregnancy can prevent complications of pregnancy itself and health problems in the unborn child.
Requirements: Do not eat for two but eat twice as much
The "energy cost" of a pregnancy is an additional 150 kcal per day during the first trimester and 350 kcal during the second and third quarters. It should also take into account the build of the woman before pregnancy, activity level during pregnancy and other individual factors based on the weight curve. If energy intake is less than 1500 kcal per day during the second half of pregnancy, it can affect fetal growth, but in France most women have adequate nutrition during pregnancy and it is not necessary to consider supplements.
The recommended dietary protein is 70g per day for pregnant women. The dietary intakes far exceed except among women belonging to groups "at risk" disadvantaged, special diets (vegan). Must be combined animal and vegetable proteins.
Carbohydrate metabolism is profoundly altered during pregnancy, and glucose is very important for fetal tissues. Should be preferred sugars and carbohydrates evenly distribute during meals, especially breakfast because the risk of hypoglycaemia is very important after the young night. A breakfast carbohydrate should provide 40 to 50 g or 80 g of starch in bread or toast or 6 60g cereal.
Besides the contribution of fat intake in energy intake must ensure their content of essential fatty acids that determine the status of the newborn and therefore a good development of nervous tissue.
Calcium requirements increase to about 1200 mg per day. In addition to bone mineralization in infants, calcium intake protects pregnant women the risk of hypertension and its serious complications, seizures of eclampsia. It enhances calcium in milk to come and have a role in preventing the risk of postpartum depression.
Vitamin D deficiency, common in late pregnancy, promotes neonatal hypocalcemia. That is why France is recommended to supplement with vitamin D systematically pregnant women, at least during the third quarter.
Iron requirements are increased especially in the last 6 months of pregnancy, and require inputs from 30 to 50 mg per day. Iron deficiency anemia as a result of iron deficiency increases the risk of prematurity and hypotrophy. Given the low reserves before pregnancy, many women with anemia and should receive iron supplementation during pregnancy. Women most at risk are adolescents, women with frequent pregnancies or multiple vegetarians, women from disadvantaged backgrounds.
Vitamin requirements are increased during pregnancy. Requirements for vitamins A, C and B group are easily covered by a diet sufficiently diversified. In contrast, the coverage needs folic acid (vitamin B9) is a problem many women showing a reduced rate from the beginning of pregnancy. Folic acid deficiency increases the risk of prematurity and fetal growth retardation, and may provide neural tube defects. We advise all women to increase dietary folic acid supplementation is indicated in high-risk groups.
Needs of other micronutrients (magnesium, zinc, iodine) are covered by the diet. There is no evidence that fluoride supplementation have an effect on the future teeth of the fetus.
The salt can be used normally during pregnancy, 10 to 12 g per day, except against medical contraindication.